Peru Travel Packages

What are the best Machu Picchu, Galapagos Islands and Easter Island tours?

The Best of South America at your hands.
Visiting South America gives you the opportunity to discover the Galapagos Islands, with its unique fauna and flora in the world. As well as Machu Picchu, an iconic ruin from the Inca Empire, and Easter Island with their moai misteries. Our programs are flexible and you can customize to suit your needs. You can pick the tour you like or you can book a complete program with us. We have a team of professional sales executives to assist you

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Galapagos Islands, Nasca Lines, Machu Picchu, Easter Island
The Galápagos Islands, share with us the Legend where animals do not fear man, see the Giant Tortoises and blue footed boobies, walk inside lava tubes and swim safely among sharks and sea lions.
Easter Island, is best known for the giant stone monoliths, known as Moai, that dot the coastline. The early settlers called the island "Te Pito O Te Henua" (Navel of The World).
The Nazca Lines are an enigma. Since their discovery, the Nazca Lines have inspired more fantastic explanations. Machu Picchu is one of the greatest marvels of World. A resting place, the lost city of the Incas... more information

Titicaca Lake, day night cruise


Nazca Lines Overflight


Tambopata National Reserve


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Machu Picchu new seven wonders

Peru Map







1.- Lima and Machu Picchu 5 Days 4 Nights
2.- Cultural Perú 6 Days 5 Nights
3.- Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu Tour 7 Days 6 nights
4.- Lima Cusco and Machu Picchu 7 Days 6 nights
5.- Archeological Perú 8 Days 7 nights
6.- Perú Short Adventure 9 Days 8 nights
7.- Machu Picchu and The Titicaca Lake 9 Days 8 nights
8.- Discovering Perú 25 Days 24 nights
9.- Short Combination 11 Days 10 nights
10.- Incas Empire 14 Days 13 nights
11.- Perú adventure Extensive 15 Days 14 nights
12.- Lima Canopy Walkway and Machu Picchu 8 Days 7 nights
13.- Lima and the Incas land 9 Days 8 nights
14.- The North and South of Peru 16 Days 15 Nights

15.- Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Easter Island 12 Days 11 Nights
16.- Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Galapagos Islands 15 Days 14 Nights
17.- Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Galapagos Islands 12 Days 11 Nights
18.- Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Galapagos Islands 11 Days 10 Nights
19.- Galapagos Islands, Machu Picchu and Easter Island 15 Days 14 Nights
20.- Galapagos Islands, Machu Picchu and Easter Island 16 Days 15 Nights
21.- Galapagos Islands, Nazca Lines, Machu Picchu and Easter Island 19d 18n




- How to get to Machu Picchu?, the lost city of the Incas

- Where is Caral?, the oldest town on the new world

- How to see the condors in the Colca Canyon?, where you can see the flight of the condors

- How to fly over the Nazca Lines?, geoglyphs, only visible flying over them

- Where is Chan Chan?, the largest adobe city in the Americas

- Is Sacsayhuaman close to Cusco?, impressive construction and megalithic mystery

- Is Lake Titicaca the highest in the world?, the highest navigable lake

- Where is the Galapagos Islands?, great biodiversity of flora and fauna

- Is the Salt flat Uyuni in Bolivia?, is the world's largest salt flat

- Where is Easter Island?, famous for its nearly 1,000 extant monumental statues


Machu Picchu and Rainbow Mountain - Vinicunca

Visit with us Machu Picchu and the Rainbow Mountain - Vinicunca
Lima (city tour) - Cusco (City tour), Koricancha , Sacsayhuaman, Kenko, Tambomachay - Sacred Valley, Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chincheros - Machu Picchu, Rainbow Mountain, Vinicunca

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Galapagos Islands, Nazca Lines, Machu Picchu and Easter Island

GLAMPING.- For this amazing experince we built on the middle of the desert diferent areas like camping area, bathroom, bar, a dinning area with pillows, carpets and tables, we also built a campfire area and a kitchen area where a private chef will prepare a delicious meal for you.

STAR LODGE CAPSULES.- Located in the Sacred Valley of Cuzco, Peru, the exclusive Skylodge Adventure Suites offers you the chance to sleep within a completely transparent hanging bedroom, that allows you to appreciate the impressive view of this magic and mystic valley.

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Galapagos Islands, Nazca Lines, Machu Picchu and Easter Island


Quito, Baltra Island, Galapagos Islands, Lima, Nazca Lines, Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu Picchu 2days 1 night, Santiago de Chile, Easter Island, Rapa Nui. ECUADOR, PERU, CHILE.

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Peru, the richest country in the world - Visit Peru - Welcome to Peru


CUSCO AND MACHU PICCHU 7days / 6 nights

Machu Picchu Tours

LIMA, CUSCO AND MACHU PICCHU TRAVEL, 7 days / 6 nightsEnjoy your visit to Lima (City Tour), Travel to Cusco (City Tour: The Cathedral, Koricancha, Sacsayhuaman, Puca Pucara, Tambomachay), Sacred Valley: Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chincheros and Machupicchu 2 days / 1 night.

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Machu Picchu amd Easter Island

Lima, Cusco (Sacsayhuaman, Puca Pucara, Kenko, Tambomachay), Sacred Valley (Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chincheros), Machu Picchu 2days 1 night, Santiago de Chile, Easter Island (Vaihu, Akahanga, Tonqariki, Nau Nau, Rano Raraku volcano.

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Machu Picchu and Galapagos islands

Lima, (city rour); Cusco (city tour), Sacred Valley (Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chicheros), Machu Picchu 2d/1n.
Quito; Galapagos Islands
4d/3n, Baltra Island, Santa Cruz island, Española island, Floreana island, San Cristonal island
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Machu Picchu and Iguazu Falls

PERU.- Lima (city tour), Cusco (city tour), Sacred Valley (Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chincheros), Machu Picchu, 2d/1N

ARGENTINA.- Iguazu Falls 3d/2n (side Brazilian and side Argentinian)
, Buenos Aires (city tour).
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Machu Picchu and Nazca Lines


Lima and overfly the Nazca Lines (full day) - Cusco (City tour) Sacred Valley, Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chicheros - Machu Picchu full day - Lima trasnsfer out

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INCAS EMPIRE 14days / 13 nights

Machu Picchu

TRAVEL TO LIMA, NAZCA LINES, AREQUIPA, COLCA CANYON, PUNO, TITICACA LAKE, CUSCO AND MACHU PICCCHU. Lima (city tour) - Nazca Lines overflight - Arequipa (city tour), Colca Canyon 2d/1n - Puno, Uros and Taquile Island - Pucara, Raqchi, Andahuaylillas - Cusco(City tour) - Sacred Valley - Machu Picchu.
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Machu Picchu and Titicaca Lake

9days / 8 nights

Lima, Cusco, Sacred Valley (Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chincheros), Machu Picchu, Puno, Titicaca Lake, The uros And Taquile islands, The Sun Island (Bolivia)

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Machu Picchu Tours

PERU TOURS - The north and south of Peru 16d / 15n
Lima, Arequipa (city tour), Colca Canyon, Puno, Titicca Lake, Cusco
(city tour, Sacsayhuaman, Puca Pucara, Kenko, Tambomachay), Sacred Valley (Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Chincheros), Machu Picchu, Chiclayo, Lord of Sipan, Trujillo (city tour) Chan Chan

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Machu Picchu and Salt Flat Uyuni

PERU.- Lima (city tour), Cusco (city tour), Sacred Valley (Pisac. Ollantaytambo, Chincheros), Machu Picchu 2d/1n; Puno, Uros and Taquile islands,

BOLIVIA.- Copacabana and Sun Island 2d/1n, La Paz (city tour and the Moon Valley),
Salt Flat Uyuni 3d/2n
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Machu Picchu and Tamboipata Rainforest


Lima, Puerto Maldonado (Tambopata Lodge 3d/2n), Tambopata, Cusco (City Tour), Inca trail to Machu Picchu 4d/3n (Huayllabamba, Pacamayo, Wiñayhuayna), Puno, Titicaca lake, Uros and Taquile Island - Lima

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Sanctuary Lodge

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• Peru Travel, Lima and Machu Picchu 5 Days 4 Nighs
Lima city tour: Huaca Pucllana, an archaeological precinct; Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Cusco city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha; 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay - Machu Picchu excursion Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas. Vistadome train service
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Peru Travel, Cultural Peru 6 Days 5 Nights
Lima city tour: Huaca Pucllana, an archaeological precinct; Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Cusco city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha; 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay; Sacred Valley: village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market - Machu Picchu excursión, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas. Vistadome train service
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Peru Travel, Lima Cusco and Machu Picchu 7 Days 6 nights
Lima city tour: Huaca Pucllana, an archaeological precinct; Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Cusco city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha; 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay; Sacred Valley: village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market - Cusco, Aguas Calientes, Machu Picchu 2days/1night, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas. Vistadome train service, overnight in Aguas Calientes
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Peru Travel, The north and south of Peru 16 Days 15 nights
Lima City Tour, Arequipa City Tour, Colca Canyon, Puno, Titicca lake, Los Uros and Taquile Islands, Cusco City tour (Sacsayhuaman, Puca Pucara, Tambomachay, Koricancha), Sacred Valley village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market, Machu Picchu, Chiclayo, Lord of Sipan, Trujillo (city tour) Chan Chan
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Peru Travel, Archeological Peru 8 Days 7 nights
Lima - Pachacamac ancient Pre-Columbian ruins - Flight over the mysterious Nazca Lines - Cusco city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha; 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay - Sacred Valley: village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market - Machu Picchu excursión, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas. Vistadome train service
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Peru Travel, Peru Short Adventure 9 Days 8 nights
Lima - Cusco city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha; 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay - Sacred Valley village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market - Machu Picchu excursion, Inka trail 2/1 our hike from km 104, visit to Wiñayhuayna, Overnight in Aguas Calientes,Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas - Cusco, Horse Back Riding half day (Sacsayhuaman, Q´enko, Puca Pucara, and temple of Tambomachay) - Puerto Maldonado 3/2, Transfer and overnight to Wasai Lodge; Tambopata River And Macaws Travel up the Tambopata River for an hour, Observation of nature in Bahuaja-Sonene National Park, Observation of Macaws, Night excursion to search for caimans
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Peru Travel, Machu Picchu and The Titicaca Lake 9 Days 8 nights
Lima - Cusco city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha; 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara - Sacred Valley, village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market - Machu Picchu excursión, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas. Vistadome train service - Puno: visit the floating islands of Uros, Taquile island; Titicaca Sun Island full day.- Puno, Copacabana, Sun Island, Inti Wata Complex, Copacabana, Puno
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Peru Travel, Discovering Peru 25 Days 24 nights
Lima city tour, Lima Downtown - Chiclayo, visit to Huaca Rajada, the Royal Tombs of Sipan Museum - Trujillo, travel by private car or bus, visit the Temples of the Sun and Moon, Trujillo city tour, royal palace complex of Chan Chan, visit to Huanchaco beach - Lima - Paracas - Nazca, excursion to the Ballestas islands, Transfer to Nazca by private transportation( 3 hours), Nazca Lines Overflight for half an hour visit to the Chauchilla cemetery - Arequipa city tour, Colca Canyon excursion, overnight in Colca Valley, Condor Cross - Cusco, city tour and visit a 4 local archeological sites - Sacred Valley - Machupicchu excursión , Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas, Overnight in Aguas Calientes - Cusco - Puno, visit the floating islands of Uros, Visit to Taquile island, Titicaca Sun Island full day -Lima - Iquitos, Explorama Lodge, Canopy Walkway - Lima
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Peru Travel, Short Combination, Lima, Nazca Lines, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Manu Cloud Forest 11 Days 10 nights
Lima - Nazca Lines Overflight for half an hour - Cusco, city tour - Sacred Valley village and Indian market of Pisac, Ollantaytambo fortress and Chinchero Market - Machu Picchu excursion, Inka trail 2/1 Overnight in Aguas Calientes, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas, Horse Back Riding half day(Sacsayhuaman, Q´enko, Puca Pucara, and temple of Tambomachay) - Manu cloud forest 3/2 - Cusco - Lima
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Peru Travel, Incas Empire 14 Days 13 nights
Lima - Arequipa City Tour, private service, Colca Canyon 2d/1n, Condor Cross - Arequipa - Cusco, city tour - Sacred Valley - Machu Picchu excursión, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas. Vistadome train service - Cusco - Puno, Uros and Taquile
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Peru Travel, Peru adventure Extensive 15 Days 14 nights
Lima - Puerto Maldonado 3/2 Transfer to Lodge, Tambopata River, Observation of Macaws, Night excursion to search for caimans - Cusco, city tour and visit a: Mayor Square, the Cathedral, Koricancha, 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay. Sacred Valley, Inca Trail To Machu Picchu 4Days 3nights Cusco - Puno, visit the floating islands of Uros, Visit to Taquile island - Lima
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Peru Travel, Lima Canopy Walkway and Machupicchu 8 Days 7 nights
Lima city tour, Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Iquitos, the Explorama dock, Fifty mile journey down the Amazon River to Yanamonohike along the "Lake Trail" through lowland rainforest (in boat during the high season), Morning walk along the "Bushmaster Trail", boat trip along the Amazon in search of either of the two species of freshwater dolphin, Morning walk along a local river trail with stops along the way, visit the "ribereños" - Lima - Cusco, city tour - Machu Picchu excursion/fullday, Guide tour to the lost city of the inkas in Vistadome
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Peru Travel, Lima and the Incas land 9 Days 8 nights
Lima - Cusco, city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay, Sacred Valley - Inca Trail To Machupicchu - 4Days 3nights travel by bus to the Km 82 (sacred valley), hike to Llulluchapampa camp at Huayllabamba, Warmiwañusca (4,200 m. alt.), camp along the river Pacamayo at the bottom of the pass, Hike towards Runku Rakay (3,800 masl.), hrough a dense cloud forest to Wiña Wayna passing many Inca ruins on the way, Overnight in Wiñayhuayna, rise very early so that we may watch the sunrise from Inti Punku, Guided tour in “The lost City of the inkas”, Overnight at the hotel in Aguas Calientes - Lima
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Peru Travel, Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Galapagos Islands 15 Days 14 Nights
Lima city tour, Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Lima - Cusco, city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay, Sacred Valley Pisac, Ollantaytambo y Chicheros, Machu Picchu 2 days 1 night by train - Lima to Quito, Departure from Quito or Guayaquil to Baltra, Galapagos islands, Santa Cruz, Española, Floreana, North Seymour, Rabida, Fernandina, Bartolome, Charles Darwin Research Station
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Peru Travel, Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Galapagos Islands 12 Days 11 Nights

Peru Travel, Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Galapagos Islands 11 Days 10 Nights


Peru Travel, Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and Easter Island 12 Days 11 Nights
Lima city tour, Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Lima - Cusco, city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay, Sacred Valley Pisac, Ollantaytambo y Chicheros, Machu Picchu 2 days 1 night by train - Lima to Santiago de Chile, Santiago to Easter Island (Rapa Nui)
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Peru Travel, Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu, La Paz (Bolivia), Tiahuanaco, Buenos Aires (Argentina), Iguazu Falls 15 Days 14 Nights
Lima city tour, Lima Downtown: mayor square, Convento San Francisco y Catacumbas, El Olivar en San isidro, Larco Mar en Miraflores - Lima - Cusco, city tour and visit a: mayor square, the Cathedral, Koricancha 4 local archeological sites: Sacsayhuamán, Quenco, Puca Pucara y Tambomachay, Sacred Valley Pisac, Ollantaytambo y Chicheros, Machu Picchu 2 days 1 night by train - Cusco to La Paz (Bolivia), City tour, Tiahuanaco, La Paz to Buenos Aires (Argentina), City tour, Iguazu Falls.
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Surface Area
With an area of 1,285,215 square km, Peru is the third-largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, ranking it amongst the world's 20 largest nations.
Peru also holds sway over the sea up to 200 miles from the Peruvian coast and has territorial rights to an area of 60 million hectares in the Antarctic. Peru is divided into 24 departments. Lima is the capital of Peru.

27.000.000 inhabitants.
- Urban: 72,3 %
- Rural: 27,7 %

Peru is a nation of mixed ethnic origins. Throughout its history, Peru has been the meeting ground for different nations and cultures. The indigenous population was joined 500 years ago by the Spaniards.
As a result of this encounter, and later enriched by the migration of African blacks, Asians and Europeans, Peruvian man emerged as the representative of a nation whose rich ethnic mix is one of its leading characteristics.

- Spanish: 80,3%
- Quechua: 16,2%
- Other languages: 3,0%
- Foreign languages: 0,2%

The official currency in Peru is the Nuevo Sol (S/.), which is divided into 100 centimos. The currency includes coins for 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimos and 1, 2 and 5 sol coins. There are bills in the denomination of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Nuevos Soles.

Peru is a democratic republic. The president and members of Congress are elected every five years by universal suffrage. The current constitutional president of Peru is Alan Garcia Pérez (2006-2011).

Roman Catholic: 89,03%
Evangelical: 6,73%
Other religions: 2,56%
Any Religion: 1.65%

Peru is divided into three regions: the coast, the highlands and the jungle.
Although this simple division is a fair portrait of Peru's geography, the reality is much richer and far more complex: in Peru, nature appears to have taken on particular characteristics which have turned its mountains, plains, jungles and valleys into unique habitats.
An extraordinary variety of eco-systems shelters a wide diversity of animals and plants.


Peru: a privileged destination
Heir to ancient cultures and a rich colonial tradition, Perú is a magical spot which involves one of the richest biodiversities of Earth, and is a melting pot of different cultures who together are forging the promise of a better future.

Important hotel infrastructure
Important hotel infrastructure.
- 7.646 lodgings offering 131.624 rooms and 229.886 beds
- 26 five-star hotels, 26 four-star hotels, 487 three-star hotels
- 927 two star-hotels, 411 one star-hotels and 42 logdes.

Accessibility by air and land
- 14 airports equipped to receive commercial flights and 10 ready for international flights: Lima, Arequipa, Chiclayo, Pisco, Pucallpa, Iquitos, Cusco, Trujillo, Tacna and Juliaca.
- 17 airlines operating international flights
- 7 airline companies offering domestic flights
- More than 78,000 kilometers of highways, 8,084.26 of which are asphalted

Archaeological heritage
Ten thousand years of history are lived through 180 museums and historical places. While Peru inevitably evokes images of Machu Picchu and the Inca empire, the country is also riddled with archaeological sites which are a legacy of even more ancient times, when great civilizations bequeathed a legacy of their art, customs and rituals, their wisdom and skills.

Nature and Landscapes
- As home to 84 of the 104 life zones that exist on our plant makes Peru a privileged destination for nature lovers.
- Close to 20% of the worlds birds and 10% of the world's reptiles live here.
- Peru has converted 13% of its territory into Protected Natural Areas.

Festivities and Traditions
Peru is a country that sings and dances in joy and sadness with color and a great deal of paraphernalia. Peruvians celebrate some 3,000 festivals all over the country.

Incomparable cuisine
Over 40,000 restaurants across the country reflect the diversity of a nation that has mixed its native traditions with the cuisines of Europe, Arabia, China, Africa and Japan. The result: unique flavours that make Peruvian cuisine one of the best and most varied in the world.

Recipes such as cebiche (raw fish marinated in lemon juice), pachamanca (meat and vegetables cooked underground), chupe de camarones (shrimp soup), ají de gallina (spicy chicken) and juanes (cornmash pastries) are just a few of the mouth-watering dishes served up in Peru.

Peru was gifted with lands and seas of divine abundance and we, the Peruvians, for centuries now, have given thanks for this gift by cooking, eating, and creating just as the gods do.


Peru Travel - Peru Tours - Peruvian Tour- Peru Vacations
Travel to Peru with us, We will help you to discover the Andes,
the virgin rainforest in the south
and north of Peru.
Our programs are flexible and you can customize to suit your needs.
You can pick the tour you like or you can book a complete program with us.
We have a team of professional sales executives to assist you.

Travel to Peru, explore the amazing sites of Machu Picchu, Choquequirao, Sillustani or Kuelap, fly over the Nazca Lines, explore the Manu rainforest, navigate the Titicaca Lake or walk the Inca Trail. Practice your favorite adventure sport on the coast, rivers or mountains or enjoy the wide variety of flora and fauna of the Peruvian Amazon jungle.

Ecology and untouched nature travel opportunities. Come with us to explore and enjoy the wilderness our country offers the traveller.

Because of its coast, desert, jungle and highlands, Peru offers many adventure travel options. Andean Rock and Mountain Climbing, Scuba Diving the Pacific Ocean blue waters, Trekking the Inca trails, Rafting the Andean rivers, Mountain biking trips, Surfing the waves of the Pacific Ocean and many other adventure travel options in Peru... Come with us to find out what Peru can offer

While Peru inevitably evokes images of Machu Picchu and the Inca empire, the country is also riddled with archaeological sites which are a legacy of even more ancient times, when great civilizations bequeathed a legacy of their art, customs and rituals, their wisdom and skills.

The Inca empire was a recent arrival during the process of cultural development in the Andes during the pre-Hispanic era, and the history of the Incas barely accounts for a century within the 20,000 years of human occupation of Peruvian territory.

Much earlier than the Incas and while civilizations like the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Indian, and Chinese (3000 and 2000 B.C.) flourished, the city of Caral, located north of the city of Lima-Peru, was built; this was the first American expression of a Pre-Ceramic urban settlement with monumental architecture in an area greater than 10 hectares. Later, in the northern highlands, the Chavin (800 – 200 B.C.) achieved significant advances in architecture, engineering, and agriculture.

The Chavín civilization (1500-400 BC) achieved considerable prowess in architecture, engineering and agriculture in the northern highlands. Along the north coast, the Moche civilization (200 BC-700 AD) is famous for its realistic pottery (portraits carved into pots and gourds) and its pyramid-shaped temples. The same area was later controlled by the Chimú kingdom (900-1450 AD), who built Chan Chan, an immense mud-brick citadel featuring 12-meter-high walls and superb architectural work.

To the south, the Nazca people (200 BC-900 AD) etched an impressive series of figures etched into the desert floor known as the Nazca Lines, while graves belonging to the Paracas culture (800 BC-600 AD) have unearthed superb weavings which point to the magical and religious vision that governed the lives of this ancient civilization.

Centuries later, the Incas (1300-1500 AD) were to make Cusco the center of their empire, building major constructions such as Sacsayhuaman, Pisac and Koricancha. It is here that myth and history merge, where the Inca roads, the towns, people and traditions are a living example of the Andean spirit, sacred and monumental.

"Peruvian Tours" is a specialist tour operator, offering a wide variety of tours and services throughout Peru. With many years experience in the tourism industry, our Travel Agency offers a highly professional and personalised service.

Our expert services include airport transfers, domestic air ticketing, land travel, a complete hotel reservation service from luxury to tourist class hotels, excursions, multilingual guides.

Discover why Peru is for many the heart of South America's greatest civilizations!. Let us show you our country!. Travel to Peru with Us.

Peru Tours - Peru Travel - Peruvian Tours - Peru Vacation



Peru general information
| Peru history | Peru geography | Peru population | Peru economy


Lima | Cusco | Puno | Arequipa | Puerto Maldonado, Iquitos


Lima city of kings, City Tour, Pachacamac
Adventure Programs
The lost city of the incas / River Rafting full day / Horse back riding
Cultural Tours
Cusco city of inkas 3/2 / Cusco city of inkas 4/3 / Machupicchu extensive
Trekking in Cusco
inca trail 2/1 / inca trail 4/3 / inca trail 5/4 / choquequirao 5/4 / ausangate 7/6
Manu National Park
manu wildlife center 4/3
/ manu wildlife center 5/4 / manu the bio trip 6/5
Manu Cultural Zone 4/3 / Manu Reserver Zone 8/7
Puerto Maldonado Sandoval and hearth river
sandoval programs / heath river programs

Iquitos ceiba exploranapo explortambo / Iquitos ceiba tops and canopy walkway
Iquitos explorama lodge and canopy walkway
Arequipa the white city / Colca Canyon 2/1
Chiclayo_and Trujillo

Nazca Lines, Cusco, Machu Picchu / Ica, Paracas and the Nazca Lines

Titicaca catamarans / Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu, Puno, La Paz / Lima, Machu Picchu, Puno, La Paz, Oruro, Salar de Uyuni
Peru Argentina Tours


Make your own trip
Peru travel tips, Useful information
Machu Picchu New 7 Wonders - Photo Gallery / Peru Tours Google Earth
Peru Photo Gallery / Peru Videos / Peru Map / Nazca Lines Google Earth / Peru News
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Peru Travel & Tours




 Peru Photo Gallery


Caral, The oldest town in the New World


Inca Trail, Cusco to Machu Picchu


Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu, Puno, Titicaca Lake, La Paz, Oruro, Salar de Uyuni


Peru vacations, Machu Picchu, Cusco, Nazca Lines


Chan Chan, Lord of Sipan


Lima, City of the Kings




Maras and Moray


Google Earth, Machu Picchu, Pisac, Ollantaytambo

Google Earth, Nazca Lines coordinates


- Lima
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- Machu Picchu
- Tambopata
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- Nazca















Machu Picchu "old peak", is a 15th-century Inca site located 2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level is an outstanding example of man's interaction with his natural environment, in the midst of a tropical mountain forest in an extraordinarily beautiful setting, Machu Picchu was probably the most amazing urban creation of the Inca Empire at its height. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District in Peru. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Sacred Valley which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacutec (1438–1472). Often referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is perhaps the most familiar icon of Inca civilization.


Machu Picchu travel

Embedded within a dramatic landscape at the meeting point between the Peruvian Andes and the Amazon Basin, the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu is among the greatest artistic, architectural and land use achievements anywhere and the most significant tangible legacy of the Inca civilization. Recognized for outstanding cultural and natural values, the mixed World Heritage property covers 32,592 hectares of mountain slopes, peaks and valleys surrounding its heart, the spectacular archaeological monument of “La Ciudadela” (the Citadel) at more than 2,400 meters above sea level. Built in the fifteenth century Machu Picchu was abandoned when the Inca Empire was conquered by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was not until 1911 that the archaeological complex was made known to the outside world.

The approximately 200 structures making up this outstanding religious, ceremonial, astronomical and agricultural centre are set on a steep ridge, crisscrossed by stone terraces. Following a rigorous plan the city is divided into a lower and upper part, separating the farming from residential areas, with a large square between the two. To this day, many of Machu Picchu’s mysteries remain unresolved, including the exact role it may have played in the Incas’ sophisticated understanding of astronomy and domestication of wild plant species.

The massive yet refined architecture of Machu Picchu blends exceptionally well with the stunning natural environment, with which it is intricately linked. Numerous subsidiary centres, an extensive road and trail system, irrigation canals and agricultural terraces bear witness to longstanding, often on-going human use. The rugged topography making some areas difficult to access has resulted in a mosaic of used areas and diverse natural habitats. The Eastern slopes of the tropical Andes with its enormous gradient from high altitude “Puna” grasslands and Polylepis thickets to montane cloud forests all the way down towards the tropical lowland forests are known to harbour a rich biodiversity and high endemism of global significance. Despite its small size the property contributes to conserving a very rich habitat and species diversity with remarkable endemic and relict flora and fauna.


Machu Picchu, map, sketch, Google earth, Putucusi, Huayna Picchu, Aguas Calientes Town, Sanctuary Lodge

Huayna Picchu, Wayna Picchu "young peak" is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District. It rises over Machu Picchu, the so-called lost city of the Incas, and divides it into sections. The Incas built a trail up the side of the Huayna Picchu and built temples and terraces on its top. The peak of Huayna Picchu is about 2,720 metres (8,920 ft) above sea level, or about 360 metres (1,180 ft) higher than Machu Picchu.


According to local guides, the top of the mountain was the residence for the high priest and the local virgins. Every morning before sunrise, the high priest with a small group would walk to Machu Picchu to signal the coming of the new day. The Temple of the Moon, one of the three major temples in the Machu Picchu area, is nestled on the side of the mountain and is situated at an elevation lower than Machu Picchu. Adjacent to the Temple of the Moon is the Great Cavern, another sacred temple with fine masonry. The other major local temples in Machu Picchu are the Temple of the Condor, Temple of Three Windows, Principal Temple, "Unfinished Temple", and the Temple of the Sun, also called the Torreon








Sometime before 3200 BC, if not 3500 BC, something happened in the Norte Chico in Peru, an agronomical no-go area, where hardly anything grows. This, however, is the site where the oldest traces of a “genuine civilisation” – pyramids included – were found in America. 
Here, at least 25 large ceremonial/residential sites have so far been found, of which Caral has become the most famous. The North Chico, roughly 100 km north of the Peruvian capital Lima, consists of four narrow river valleys, from south to north, the Huaura, Supe, Pativilca, and Fortaleza. The ancient pyramids of Caral predate the Inca civilisation by 4000 years, but were flourishing a century before the pyramids of Gizeh. No surprise therefore that they have been identified as the most important archaeological discovery since the discovery of Machu Picchu in 1911.


Caral, the oldest town in the New World


The first full-scale archaeological investigation of the region took place in 1941 in Aspero, when Gordon R. Willey and John M. Corbert of Harvard investigated a salt marsh at the mouth of the Supe. They found a big trash heap and a multiroomed building with no pottery and a few maize cobs under the pounded clay floor. They wondered how maize could have been cultivated in a salt marsh and why these people could have agriculture, yet no pottery. Willey and Corbett also found six mounds, some of them nearly five metres tall. They were catalogued as "natural eminences of sand". Thirty years later, Willey, in the company of Michael E. Moseley, revisited the site and realised that these "natural eminences" were in fact "temple-type platform mounds". He also realised there might have been as many as seventeen such mounds, all of which Willey had missed on his first exploration of the site. "It is an excellent, if embarrassing, example of not being able to find what you are not looking for", he commented later. As to its age: carbondating revealed that Aspero could go back to 3000 BC, whereby samples from a nearby site even revealed a date of 4900 BC. Those objective findings were nevertheless seen as impossible - far too old with "what was known" and hence not accepted.





Caral is located 14 miles inland from Aspero. Even though Caral was discovered in 1905, it was quickly forgotten as the site rendered no gold or even ceramics. It required the arrival of Ruth Shady Solis in Caral in 1994 before a genuine paradigm shift would occur. She is a member of the Archaeological Museum of the National University of San Marcos in Lima. Since 1996, she has co-operated with Jonathan  Haas, of the American Field Museum. Together, they have found a 150-acre array of earthworks, which includes six large platform mounds, one twenty metres high and more than one hundred on a side. But Shady Solis did not make the same mistake Willey had made: she felt that the “pyramids” were just that: they were not natural hills, as some of her predecessor had catalogued the structures of Caral.
Her subsequent research led to the announcement, in the magazine Science on April 27, 2001, of the carbon dating of the site, which revealed that Caral had been founded before 2600 BC. The "impossible" carbondating results of Aspero now seemed more likely... and Caral had become the oldest city in the "New" World, older than the Gizeh pyramids.

What is Caral like? The site is in fact so old that it predates the ceramic period, the reason why no pottery was found. Its importance resides in its domestication of plants, especially cotton, but also beans, squashes and guava. 
As mentioned, the heart of the site covers 150 acres and contains six stone platform mounds – pyramids. The largest mound measures 154 by 138 metres, though it rises only to a height of twenty metres; two sunken plazas are at the base of the mound and a large plaza connects all the mounds. The largest pyramid of Peru was terraced with a staircase leading up to an atrium-like platform, culminating in a flattened top housing enclosed rooms and a ceremonial fire pit. All pyramids were built in one or two phases, which means that there was a definitive plan in erecting these monuments. The design of the central plaza would also later be incorporated in all similar structures across the Andes in the millennia to come – thus showing that Caral was a true cradle of civilisation. Around the pyramids were many residential structures. One house revealed the remains of a body that was buried in the wall and appears to have been a natural death, rather than evidence of human sacrifice. Amongst the artefacts discovered are 32 flutes made from pelican and animal bones, engraved with the figures of birds and monkeys. It shows that though situated along the Pacific coast, its inhabitants were aware of the animals of the Amazon.

iHow did the culture begin? It is suggested that several small villages merged in 2700 BC, quite possibly based on the success of early agricultural cultivation and fishing techniques. The invention of cotton fishing nets, the cotton grown in the Supe valley, must have greatly facilitated the fishing industry. It is believed that this excess of food might have resulted in trade with the religious centres. But apart from an economic model of exchange, the new social model also meant that a labour force existed that had in essence little to do. This labour force could thus be used for “religious purposes”. Caral might have been the natural result of this process – just like the pyramids of Egypt seem to have been the result of an available workforce. 
The discovery of Caral has therefore reintroduced a powerful enigma: at the same time, on two different continents, agricultural advancements created a new style of life. The available workforce that agriculture had created was reemployed in the construction of pyramids. This “template” is visible in Peru, Sumer and Egypt, all in the 3rd millennium BC. Coincidence, or evidence of design? Alternative researchers will certainly soon reopen this debate, but archaeologists steer well clear of it.

Caral is indeed hard to accept. It is very old. Still, its dating of 2627 BC is beyond dispute, based as it is on carbondating reed and woven carrying bags that were found in situ. These bags were used to carry the stones that were used for the construction of the pyramids. The material is an excellent candidate for dating, thus allowing for a high precision. 
The town itself had a population of approximately 3000 people. But there are 17 other sites in the area, allowing for a possible total population of 20,000 people for the Supe valley. Indeed, the Caral archaeological team broke up to investigate some of the other sites, such as along the Pativilca River, the next river to the north, and the Fortaleza, just north of the Pativilca. All of these sites share similarities with Caral. They have small platforms or stone circles and all were major urban centres on par with Caral – though some of them were even older than Caral. Haas believes that Caral was nevertheless the focus of this civilisation, itself part of an even vaster complex, trading with the coastal communities and the regions further inland – as far as the Amazon, if the depiction of monkeys is any indication





In July 2006, Caral was opened for tourism, even though it had already received 7,338 visitors in 2003, 15,265 visitors in 2004 and 21,068 visitors in 2005. With the support of PromPeru, and its location being just two hours north of Lima along the easily accessible Pan-American Highway, this number is expected to rise in the coming years. It will continue to undergo a series of restorations that will provide an added value to the existing and future tourist circuits in the region.
But some of the other sites of Norte Chico are still the almost exclusive bailiwick of archaeologists. One site, Huaricanga, saw a first paper published in December 2004. The team of Haas, Winnifred Creamer and Alvaro Ruiz found evidence of people living inland from the coast as early as 9210 BC, with the oldest date associated with a city being 3500 BC. Other urban sites in the region are now dated as being older than Caral: Caballete at 3100 BC, Porvenir and Upaca at 2700 BC. Charles Mann writes how "individually, none of the twenty-five Norte Chico cities rivaled Sumer's cities in size, but the totality was bigger than Sumer."

Haas describes the civilisation of Norte Chico as the second experiment Mankind did with government: surrendering personal freedom and liberty to a centralised authority, which then apparently decided to create a ritual centre – a city, asking those who had surrendered their freedom to work hard – if not very hard – for this common or greater good. As to why this central government was created, speculation remains. The cities were not sited strategically, nor did they have defensive walls; there was no evidence of warfare. It seems that co-operation existed, because the population realised that co-operation would benefit the individual and the community as a whole. Though Haas and his colleagues put forward several "logical" reasons, Caral is primarily a religious cult centre. And no-one seems to dare to suggest the perhaps obvious reason: that these people built Caral, because of their belief and adoration of one or more deities.
That the workforce involved were not slaves or oppressed is supported by the archaeological evidence. Haas and Creamer believe that the city rulers encouraged the workforce during construction by staging celebratory roasts of fish and achira root. Afterward, the remains of these feasts were worked into the fabric of the mound. Alcohol is suspected of having been consumed, and music seems to have been played: at Caral, Shady's discovery of 32 flutes made of pelican wingbones tucked into a recess in the main temple provides the evidence for that conclusion.
The creation of a religous complex implies the existence of a pantheon. Little evidence has been uncovered of what these gods may have been, other than a drawing etched into the face of a gourd, dated to 2280-2180 BC. It depicts a sharp-toothed, hat-wearing figure who holds a long stick or rod in each hand. The image looks like an early version of the Staff God, a fanged, staff-wielding deity who is one of the main characters in the Andean pantheon, the deity that is figured prominently on the Gateway of the Sun in Tiahuanaco, on the shores of Lake Titicaca.

For an unknown reason, Caral was abandoned rapidly after a period of 500 years (ca. 2100 BC). The preferred theory as to why the people migrated is that the region was hit by a drought, forcing the inhabitants to go elsewhere in search of fertile plains. The fact that the Staff God is found two millennia later elsewhere in Southern America shows that these people did not disappear; they merely moved elsewhere, and seem to have built other religious centres on their travels. 
The harsh living conditions have since not disappeared. According to the World Monuments Fund (WMF), Caral is one of the 100 important sites under extreme danger. Shady argues that if the existing pyramids are not reinforced, they will disintegrate further and money from tourism, as well as private donations, will help preserve the site. Conservation will go hand in hand with exploration. And though Caral continues to steal the limelight, other nearby sites, such as Aspero, are older. Indeed, Aspero might one day lay claim to the title of the world's oldest city – the place where human civilisation began. Perhaps we might all once realise the irony of having labelled this continent the "New World". 
Solis came to Caral looking for the fabled missing link of archaeology, a “mother city”. Today, she is still trying to convince people that Caral was indeed the oldest urban civilisation in the world. "The discovery of Caral challenged the accepted beliefs. Some historians were not ready to believe that an urban civilisation existed in Peru even before the pyramids were built in Egypt," she says. "This place is somewhere between the seat of the gods and the home of man."









151 km / 94 miles north of Arequipa (3 hours by car)
The extreme northeastern section of the department of Arequipa is located here. The highest point is the inactive volcano Mount Ampato (6288 masl), and the lowest at the confluence of the rivers Colca and Andamayo (970 masl). The Colca valley is 100 km in length and occupies only part of the Colca river basin, comprising the districts of Callalli and Huambo.
There are sixteen villages in this zone made up of descendents of the Collaguas and Cabanas tribes, inheritors of rich cultural traditions. The towns of Chivay and Cabanaconde are the most visited by tourists.
In the latter, you can watch condors soar from the Cruz de Condor (Condor Crossing) Lookout. The Colca valley forms part of the South American tectonic plate and contains the active volcano Sabancaya, located on the volcanic mountain Hualca Hualca. This valley possesses a great diversity of flora and fauna. Among the most representative species are the condor, the kestrel, the peregrine falcon, and the Andean tinamou.


Colca Valley


42 km / 26 miles west of the town of Chivay the capital of the province of Caylloma(1 hour by car)
This is one of the deepest places on the planet, reaching a depth of 3400 meters / 11.155 feet at the lowest point in the location of Canco. On the right side, it is flanked by the Chila Cordillera (Bomboya, Serpregrina, Mismi, Queshihua) and on the other by Mount Hualca Hualca, Sabancaya, and Ampato. You can see Mount Ubinas and beautiful Mount Coropuna in the distance.


Colca Canyon, Condor


Colca Canyon, composed of 13 Andean towns, was formerly populated by the Collaguas and the Cabanas. The inhabitants of the area still conserve their old traditions and cultivate the pre-Inca terraces. It is the perfect place for practicing adventure sports, as well as seeing the majestic flight of the condor. The Colca impresses with its eye-catching terraces, its steaming volcanoes, magnificent condors, sleepy Andean towns, the deep canyon and the river that runs through it, towards the Pacific. Colca Canyon is located 42 kilometres from Chivay, the capital of the province of Caylloma. This colourful village is usually the starting point for many tourists who wish to visit the various attractions in the area, including the Cruz del Condor (Cross of the Condor) which is 60 miles away and an excellent vantage point to observe the flight of the world's largest bird.


Colca Canyon, Condor








Nazca Lines - Location

The Nazca Lines are located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the pampa (a large flat area of southern Peru). The desolate plain of the Peruvian coast which comprises the Pampas of San Jose (Jumana), Socos, El Ingenio and others in the province of Nasca, is 400 Km. South of Lima, covers an area of approximately 450 km2, of sandy desert as well as the slopes of the contours of the Andes. They cover nearly 400 square miles of desert. Etched in the surface of the desert pampa sand about 300 hundred figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes most clearly visible from the air.


 Nazca Lines overflight


Archaeologists, ethnologists, and anthropologists have studied the ancient Nazca culture to try to determine the purpose of the lines and figures. One hypothesis is that the Nazca people created them to be seen by their gods in the sky. Kosok and Reiche advanced a purpose related to astronomy and cosmology: the lines were intended to act as a kind of observatory, to point to the places on the distant horizon where the sun and other celestial bodies rose or set in the solstices. Many prehistoric indigenous cultures in the Americas and elsewhere constructed earthworks that combined such astronomical sighting with their religious cosmology.

Some Nazca Lines Coordinates

Google Earth coordinates: 14º44'42.79" S - 75º04'47.08"O

Google Earth coordinates: 14º41'39.63" S - 75º07'21.72"O

Google Earth coordinates: 14º41'23.60" S - 75º06'29.41"O

Google Earth coordinates: 14º41'32.18" S - 75º08'57.05"O

Google Earth coordinates: 14º42'26.66" S - 75º08'20.38"O




Cahuachi - Nazca Lines


Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture and overlooked some of the Nazca lines from 1 CE to about 500 CE. Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating the site for the past few decades, bringing a team down every year. The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures. It is a huge architectural complex covering 0.6 sq. miles (1.5 sq. km). It has also been studied by Helaine Silverman, who has written a book on Cahuachi.


Cahuachi - Nazca Lines


The permanent population was quite small, but it was apparently a pilgrimage center that grew greatly in population for major ceremonial events. These events probably involved the Nazca lines and the giant sand dune of Nazca. Support for the pilgrimage theory comes from archaeological evidence of sparse population at Cahuachi and from the Nazca lines themselves which show creatures such as orca and monkeys which were not present in the Nazca region. Of course, trade or travel may explain the images. Due to the dry climate the finds are quite rich and include even such ephemeral material as clothing. Looting is the greatest problem facing the site today. Most of the burial sites surrounding Cahuachi were not known until recently and so present a very tempting target. It was once thought to be the mighty capital of the Nazca state. New research has suggested that 40 of the mounds were actually natural hills modified to appear as artificial constructions.








The Chimu Kingdom, with Chan Chan as its capital, reached its apogee in the 15th century, not long before falling to the Incas. The planning of this huge city, the largest in pre-Columbian America, reflects a strict political and social strategy, marked by the city's division into nine 'citadels' or 'palaces' forming autonomous units.


Chan Chan - Trujillo


The monumental zone of around six square kilometers in the centre of the once twenty square kilometer city, comprises nine large rectangular complexes (‘citadels’ or ‘palaces’) delineated by high thick earthen walls. Within these units, buildings including temples, dwellings, storehouses are arranged around open spaces, together with reservoirs, and funeral platforms.


Chan Chan Trujillo


The earthen walls of the buildings were often decorated with friezes representing abstract motifs, and anthropomorphical and zoomorphical subjects. Around these nine complexes were thirty two semi monumental compounds and four production sectors for activities such as weaving wood and metal working. Extensive agricultural areas and a remnant irrigation system have been found further to the north, east and west of the city.

The Chimu kingdom reached its zenith in the 15th century, not long before falling under the sway of the Incas. In about 1470, after a long war, the Inca Tupac Yupanqui took King Minchancaman in captivity to Cuzco. The king's son, Chumun Caur, governed the kingdom of the north, thereafter weakened and divided, on behalf of the Inca. 

Chan Chan Trujillo


Some 60 years later, the Spanish conquistadores, favourably welcomed by the Chimus out of hate for the Incas, founded a new capital 5 km from Chan Chan which in 1535 was given the name of Pizarro's home town, Trujillo, when the site of Chan Chan was quickly abandoned. Archaeology which has provided us with data on the Chimu civilization which, around 1200, replaced the Mochica culture on the very location where the latter began developing in the 4th century. It was the Moche valley which was the vital centre of a vast empire stretching from the Gulf of Guayaquíl in the north to the region of Paramonga in the south. In this dry zone the river, which flowed into a canal 80 km long, was used, via an intricate system of irrigation, to supply the entire region that lay close to Chan Chan. It is now difficult to imagine the fertility of this region during the height of the Chimu civilization.


Chan Chan Trujillo









SACSAYHUAMAN (3,600 m.a.s.l.)

Sacsayhuamán is one of the most amazing Incan constructions for tourists. Its Quechua name means "satisfied falcon", it was the falcon that guarded the capital of the empire, since it was possible to overlook Cusco from the hill in where it was erected. If, as it is known, Cusco was designed with the shape of a lying puma, Sacsayhuamán would be its head, and the Coricancha would correspond to the feline's genitalia. 

Sacsayhuaman, Cusco, Peru

It is said that the work was started by Pachacútec and continued by Túpac Yupanqui, even though some chroniclers state that it was Huayna Cápac who gave it the final touch. Inca Garcilaso de la Vega says that Apu Huallpa Rimachi was the main architect, and that Inca Maricanhi, Acahuana Inca and Calla Cunchuy successively took control of the works. 

Its construction took over seven decades and required the work of 20,000 men approximately, both for the foundations and hewn stone works, the transportation of materials, carving and stones setting. Hewn stones could have been located at Muina, Huacoto and Rumicolca, 20 kilometers away from Cusco, and at closer places such as Sallu, Rumi, Chita, Curovilca and Viracocha. Some of its external walls exceed the 9 meters of height and 350 tons of weight. 

Spectacular fortress built with huge carved rocks jointed with absolute accuracy, this astounding sample of the Incan military architecture is, undoubtedly, the greatest architectonic work of the Tahuantinsuyo. But, in addition, it proves the undeniable firmness of the great administrative capacity of the empire and its powerful logistic system capable of mobilizing and organizing such a work. 

It is located 2 km away from the city of Cusco, that is, 10 minutes by car. As of the Spaniards arrival its aspect has changed a lot, since this fortress was used as a hewn stone to build the colonial Cusco. 


The architectonic complex occupies the edge of the northern slope of the city of Cusco. The southern side of the building was enclosed by a polished wall of almost 400 meters long. The eastern and western borders of the temple were delimited by other walls and cultivation terraces.

The main front of the building faces the north and is protected by a formidable system of three cultivation terraces. They are supported by zigzagging walls constituted by large stones that amazed their first visitors and which even now surprise us. According to Inca Garcilaso, these walls were constructed to demonstrate the Incan power. 

From Sacsayhuamán, it is possible to obtain a spectacular view of the Sacred City and its surroundings. Besides, you will be able to distinguish summits such as those from the Ausangate, the Pachatusán and the Cinca, places that are believed to be inhabited by apus or powerful spirits that govern the mountains. 


 Sacsayhuaman, Cusco, Peru



Sacsayhuamán is usually described as a fortress because it is practically enclosed by three slopes. However, the fact that the Incas constructed a fortress in that place is unusual, since at the moment of its construction they did not face major threats. Its shape and location would have responded to other principles, such as the harmony between architecture and landscape. Current investigations suggest that it must have been a temple devoted to the worship of the Sun, for which both the construction and the surrounding landscape were important. 

The main wall is formed by stones that reach the 5 meters of height and 2.5 meters of width and that can weight between 90 and 125 metric tons. Moving these stones was a real feat, as well as the perfect adjustment among them and the attention given to the bosses' curvature. 


The doors

There were several doors communicating the different levels through staircases. Garcilaso had left the names of three of them. The Tiupunco door (tiu means door) was placed at the wall with the largest stones, the second door was called Acahuana Puncu and the third one was Huiracocha Puncu (in honor of god Huiracocha). Juan Pizarro (brother of the conqueror Francisco Pizarro) died in one of these doors from a blow with a stone when the Spaniards attacked the rebel forces of Manco Inca at the enclosure of Cusco. 


The towers

The main precinct is constituted by three large terraces, whose plots were leveled and flattened. Several buildings and three big towers were erected on these terraces. To the east side was located Paucar Marca (Precious Precinct), in the middle was Sallac Marca (Precinct with Water) and to the west we could find Muyu Marca (Round Precinct). The first two had rectangular floors. Today there are only a few slight vestiges of the first tower, and only the foundations of the second tower could survive. These remains indicate that it was a rectangular-floor construction. This tower ended up in a triangular ceiling with great slant. 


Muyu Marca Tower - The tower of Cahuide

It is a cylindrical tower that, thanks to the excavations carried out and the information comprised in the chronicles, can be imagined. It would have been a building with 4 superposed floors. The first body would have had a square floor; the second would have been cylindrical; the third would have had also a cylindrical shape. The successive would have formed circular cultivation terraces with decreasing width, being the widest of 3.6 m and the narrowest of 3 m. The tower would have ended up in a conic ceiling. Muyu Marca must have reached a total height of 20 meters. It was as amazing work that generated the admiration of several chroniclers. The Spaniards destroyed it, in spite of the protests both from Cieza and Inca Garcilaso. 

Not only was Muyu Marca a building with an exceptional design, but it also had a great historic value. It was the place in where took place the strongest indigenous resistance against the Spanish conquerors during the rebellion of Manco Inca. Titu Cusi Huallpa (also called Cahuide) jumped from its highest part in order to avoid being captured by his enemies. 


 Sacsayhuaman, Cusco, Peru


The terraces

Currently there are only a few remains of the ancient constructions erected on the terraces of the complex. Between the Muyu Marca and Sallac Marca towers there was an enlarged square from where, nowadays, there is a magnificent view of the city. On the highest terrace of the set there are a circular well that could have been a reservoir, and a one-door rectangular building. On the southeast end of the complex it is possible to see curve cultivation terraces and two alignments of colcas. In general, in the entire complex there are traces of an excellent system of water supply for its inhabitants, as well as a drainage system for rain water. 


Royal House of the Sun

There are abundant descriptions of the richness of the inner decorations, as well as of the high quality and the large amount of objects that were kept in the ancient stockrooms of Sacsayhuamán. This would confirm that it was a temple devoted to the sun worship or, as Cieza de León called it, a "Royal House of the Sun". 


How to get there

You can go to the archaeological park both on foot and by car. If you want to get there on foot, journeys last 30 minutes approximately, whereas it will take you 10 minutes if you go by car. There are several routes. As of the Main Square it is possible to go up through Cuesta del Almirante, Plateros or through Suecia. All these streets end in the circumvallation that leads to Sacasyhuamán. Through it you will get directly to the entrance control booth of the archaeological park. 


 Sacsayhuaman, Inti Raymi, Cusco


The route on foot

Through Cuesta del Almirante

If you go up through it, it is necessary to continue through Córdoba Street until the Small Square of Nazarenas, in this place you will take Nazarenas Street and then Pumacurco up to the end. Another possibility is to go through Cuesta del Almirante until Ataud Street and continue through this street and then all the way through Huaynapata. This route takes about 30 minutes. 

Through Suecia

Another pedestrian route starts in Suecia Street, turns in Huaynapata and follows through Resbalosa until reaching Circunvalación. 

Through Plateros

If you walk through it you must continue through Saphi and then take the steep Amargura slope that leads to Circunvalación. 


By car

If you rather go by car, you can take Suecia Street up to Salesiano School, turn to the right and continue through Circunvalación. 

You can also start in Plateros, continue through Saphi Street and finish in the circumvallation. 

A taxi to Sacsayhuamán, without including the tour, might cost 5 soles. If you prefer, you can take the buses of Puputi Street that go to the Sacred Valley, the ticket costs 3 soles. 


The Fortress of Sacsayhuamán

One of the greatest lithic monuments of the Incan architecture was, undoubtedly, Sacsayhuamán, which was actually a Royal House of the Sun. In the Incan Cusco there were various Royal Houses of the Sun, Coricancha and Poquencancha were some of them. 

The Royal Houses of the Sun were privilege complexes, like small cities inside the city of Cusco, in where people worshiped the general god, the Sun, as well as other minor and particular gods. 

These worship centers had their own delimited territory domains, with water supplied through underground channels and lots of houses. Some writers suppose that they belonged to one or several lineages or royal Panacas. 

Sacasyhuamán is composed of colossal stone blocks, prodigiously jointed, which guard the city of Cusco. 

During that time, its immense stone walls amazed the Spanish conquerors that had just arrived, who called it "Fortress", according to their notion of cities and military constructions; however, for the Incas and their particular conception of the world, Sacsayhuamán was much more significant. The bastions, large fortified towers, houses, Indian temples, stockrooms, roads and aqueducts making up this impressive Incan construction constitute a proof of that. 

Waldemar Espinoza Soriano, profuse investigator of the Incan society, says that Sacsayhuamán is popularly called "fortress" even though, as Cieza de León states, "it was a temple devoted to the worship of the Sun". 

Among the chroniclers that describe Sacsayhuamán as Royal House of the Sun we can mention the following: 

* Garcilaso de la Vega, who sates in his "Comentarios Reales" ("Royal Comments") that people from Cusco knew, from ancient times, that this architectonic complex was actually a Royal House of the Sun. In chapter VI of his Seventh Book he says: "…an Inca with royal blood left the fortress as a messenger of the Sun…he left the fortress and not the Temple of the Sun, because it was said that he was a messenger of war not of peace, that the fortress was the House of the Sun". 

* Pedro Cieza de León, Spanish chronicler of the conquest times, states in his book "El Señorío de los Incas" ("The Incan Dominion") that the Royal House of the Sun was located to the north of the city of Cusco, within a collado." 

* Martín de Murúa, also a Spanish chronicler, states that Sacsayhuamán "…was, at first, the House of the Sun, and nowadays it is only a witness of its ruin". 

"It is undeniable that no other archaeological structure of America is as impressive as Sacsayhuamán. No matter how informed the visitor is, the scene always outshines the imagination". (Alden J.Mason). 


Location, Geographic Aspect 

Sacsayhuamán is an archaeological complex located to the north of Cusco's main square, 1 km away from the colonial parish church of San Cristóbal. 

From time immemorial, the Valley of Cusco or Watanay, as it is also called due to the river with the same name that crosses the area, was not constituted by the fertile lands that would characterize it afterwards, instead, it presented three lakes successively distributed along 30 km. 

For that reason, it has been determined that the geologic formation of Yunkaypata (where Sacsayhuamán is located) has 80 million years approximately and has a sea origin, since it has fossilized remains of sea urchins and other organisms of that habitat. The erosion and environment wore away the large masses of stone lime of the place. Precisely here there is a sort of granite slide called "Rodadero" ("Shaped to Roll"); whose polishing is a result from the seismic action of the fault in which it is located. 

Rock types such as the andesite, which can be found in the constructions of Sacsayhuamán, does not belong to that place, but they were probably transported from Waqoto and Rumicolca, located at more than 38 km from there. Nonetheless, just as the Peruvian archaeologist César García Rossell states, it will always be an enigma to determine the place or places from which the huge stone blocks were taken to the top of the hill, and the technical means or the dragging equipments, cords, ropes and hundreds of arms used in this task. 


Sacsayhuamán or Saqsaywaman is a compound Quechua word that derives from Saqsay: be satisfied or satiated, and waman: falcon. According to some researchers it means "Get satisfied falcon". The falcon is a bird of pray that abounds in that area, and it was the protector entity of the first Inca Manco Cápac. 

Others state that the monument is actually called Saqsawaman, which means marbled falcon.










The lake is located at the northern end of the endorheic Altiplano basin high in the Andes on the border of Peru and Bolivia (Surface elevation3,812 m - 12,507 ft). The western part of the lake lies within the Puno Region of Peru, and the eastern side is located in the Bolivian La Paz Department.

Titicaca Lake, Puno, Peru

The lake is composed of two nearly separate sub-basins connected by the Strait of Tiquina, which is 800 m (2,620 ft) across at the narrowest point. The larger sub-basin, Lago Grande (also called Lago Chucuito), has a mean depth of 135 m (443 ft) and a maximum depth of 284 m (932 ft). The smaller sub-basin, Wiñaymarka (also called Lago Pequeño, "little lake"), has a mean depth of 9 m (30 ft) and a maximum depth of 40 m (131 ft). The overall average depth of the lake is 107 m (351 ft)

Five major river systems feed into Lake Titicaca. In order of their relative flow volumes these are Ramis, Coata, Ilave, Huancané, and Suchez. More than twenty other smaller streams empty into Titicaca, and the lake has 41 islands, some of which are densely populated.

Having only a single season of free circulation, the lake is monomictic, and water passes through Lago Huiñaimarca and flows out the single outlet at the Río Desaguadero, which then flows south through Bolivia to Lake Poopó. This only accounts for about 10% of the lake's water balance. Evapotranspiration, caused by strong winds and intense sunlight at high altitude, balances the remaining 90% of the water input. It is nearly a closed lake.

Since 2000 Lake Titicaca has experienced constantly receding water levels. Between April and November 2009 alone the water level dropped by 81 cm (32 in), reaching the lowest level since 1949. This drop is caused by shortened rainy seasons and the melting of glaciers feeding the tributaries of the lake. Water pollution is also an increasing concern because cities in the Titicaca watershed grow, sometimes outpacing solid waste and sewage treatment infrastructure.

The cold sources and winds over the lake give it an average surface temperature of 10 to 14 °C (50 to 57 °F). In the winter (June – September), mixing occurs with the deeper waters, which are always between 10 to 11 °C (50 to 52 °F)



The Uros are a pre-Incan people who live on forty-two self-fashioned floating islands in Lake Titicaca Puno, Peru.

The Uros descend from a millennial town that, according to legends, are "pukinas" who speak Uro or Pukina and that believe they are the owners of the lake and water. Uros used to say that they have black blood because they did not feel the cold. Also they call themselves "Lupihaques" (Sons of The Sun). Nowadays, Uros do not speak the Uro language, nor practice their old beliefs but keep some old customs.


Uros Islands, Titicaca Lake, Puno, Peru


The purpose of the island settlements was originally defensive, and if a threat arose they could be moved. The largest island retains a watchtower almost entirely constructed of reeds.

The Uros traded with the Aymara tribe on the mainland, intermarrying with them and eventually abandoning the Uro language for that of the Aymara. About 500 years ago they lost their original language. When conquered by the Inca empire, they had to pay taxes to them, and often were made slaves.

The Uros use bundles of dried totora reeds to make reed boats (balsas mats), and to make the islands themselves.

The larger islands house about ten families, while smaller ones, only about thirty meters wide, house only two or three.

The islets are made of totora reeds, which grow in the lake. The dense roots that the plants develop and interweave form a natural layer called Khili (about one to two meters thick) that support the islands. They are anchored with ropes attached to sticks driven into the bottom of the lake. The reeds at the bottoms of the islands rot away fairly quickly, so new reeds are added to the top constantly, about every three months; this is what makes it exciting for tourists when walking on the island.This is especially important in the rainy season when the reeds rot much faster. The islands last about thirty years.

Each step on an island sinks about 2-4" depending on the density of the ground underfoot. As the reeds dry, they break up more and more as they are walked upon. As the reed breaks up and moisture gets to it, it rots, and a new layer has to be added to it. It is a lot of work to maintain the islands. Because the people living there are so infiltrated with tourists now, they have less time to maintain everything, so they have to work even harder in order to keep up with the tourists and with the maintenance of their island. Tourism provides financial opportunities for the natives, while simultaneously challenging their traditional lifestyle.

The Uros islands at 3810 meters above sea level are just five kilometers west from Puno port.Around 2,000 descendants of the Uros were counted in the 1997 census, although only a few hundred still live on and maintain the islands; most have moved to the mainland. The Uros also bury their dead on the mainland in special cemeteries.

Food is cooked with fires placed on piles of stones. To relieve themselves, tiny 'outhouse' islands are near the main islands. The ground root absorbs the waste.

Much of the Uros' diet and medicine also revolve around the same totora reeds used to construct the islands. When a reed is pulled, the white bottom is often eaten for iodine. This prevents goitres. This white part of the reed is called the chullo. Like the Andean people of Peru rely on the Coca Leaf for relief from a harsh climate and hunger, the Uros rely on the Totora reeds in the same way. When in pain, the reed is wrapped around the place in pain to absorb it. Also if it is hot outside, they roll the white part of the reed in their hands and split it open, placing the reed on their forehead. In this stage, it is very cool to the touch. The white part of the reed is also used to help ease alcohol-related hangovers. It is a primary source of food. They also make a reed flower tea.

Local residents fish ispi, carachi and catfish. They also run crafts stalls aimed at the numerous tourists who land on ten of the islands each year. They barter totora reeds on the mainland in Puno to get products they need, such as quinoa and other foods.



Taquile is an island on the Peruvian side of Lake Titicaca 45 km offshore from the city of Puno. About 2,200 people live on the island, which is 5.5 by 1.6 km in size (maximum measurements), with an area of 5.72 km2. The highest point of the island is 4050 meters above sea level and the main village is at 3950 m. The inhabitants, known as Taquileños, are southern Quechua speakers.

In 2005, "Taquile and Its Textile Art" were honored by being proclaimed "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.


Taquile Island, Puno, Peru


Taquileños are known for their fine handwoven textiles and clothing, which are regarded as among the highest-quality handicrafts in Peru. Knitting is exclusively performed by males, starting at age eight. The women exclusively make yarn and weave.

Taquileans are also known for having created an innovative, community-controlled tourism model, offering home stays, transportation, lodging for groups, cultural activities, local guides and restaurants. Ever since tourism started coming to Taquile in the seventies.

Taquileños run their society based on community collectivism and on the Inca moral code: ama sua, ama llulla, ama qhilla, (Quechua for "do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy"). The island is divided into six sectors or suyus for crop rotation purposes. The economy is based on fishing, terraced farming horticulture based on potato cultivation, and tourist-generated income from the approximately 40,000 tourists who visit each year.

The wildlife on Taquile includes rams, sheep, cows, guinea pigs, chickens.

The majority of the inhabitants on Taquile are Catholic. They adapted this religion, harmonizing their ancient culture with the syncretic Christian culture. The mother earth (Patchamama), the principal Andean deity, directly controls harvesting, fertility. People offer the deity a number of payments each year, and three coca leaves prior to each activity or trip. God is present throughout the year in the festivities.

Flowers and trees on the Island include Kolle, the tree used to roof the houses and for firewood, the Cantuta flower (the national flower of Peru), the Chukjo (used as detergent), and Muña (for stomach disease). A variety of flowers on the island are used as natural medicines. The coca is brought from Puno and mainly comes from Cusco.











Galapagos Islands - Map

The Galapagos Archipelago is located on both sides of the equatorial line approximately 970 km (600 miles) west from continental Ecuador. Local time is -6 GMT. It is formed by thirteen greater islands, six smaller islands, 42 islets and several rocks, which cover a total area of 7,850 km². The largest island is Isabela, with a total area of 4,590 km² which presents the highest point of the archipelago, volcano Wolf, 1,690 meters. 97% of the total area of the isles belongs to the Galapagos National Park, the rest belongs to inhabited and developed areas like the island of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela and Floreana, in addition to Baltra an island occupied by the Ecuadorian Armed forces. The Galapagos Archipelago is also a province of Ecuador, whose capital is Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, on the island of San Cristobal. Puerto Ayora, on the island of Santa Cruz, is the city with the highest tourist activity. The islands total population including floating population is around 16,109 inhabitants.

Options for flying into the Galapagos are limited to two islands; San Cristobal and Baltra. Private aircraft must use Baltra as it is the airport equipped with overnight plane accommodations. Seymour Airport on Baltra was recently renovated (2012–2013) to accommodate larger planes.

Until 1969 the only way to visit was on a private or chartered vessel. There was no regular air service until Forrest Nelson's Hotel Galapagos began the first organized tours in April 1969. Soon other travel companies brought in tour ships and yachts,[26] and local fishermen began converting their wooden boats for rudimentary cruising with guests. These vessels were the main source of overnight accommodations in the Galapagos. Today there are about 85 yachts and ships equipped for overnight guests. In 2006 the Baltra military governed island, was opened up to limited overnight camping. Baltra also requires permits by the military government for overnight stays on the beach. Other inhabited islands also allow camping on the beaches designated as "recreational" use to the locals. All of these camping permits are limited to number of people and nights, with most nights not to exceed 3.

Land based hotels are opening on the inhabited islands of San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Floreana and Isabela. By 2012, more than half the visitors to Galapagos made their tours using day boats and these small hotels. Restaurants, easy access and economy make this an attractive travel option. The cruise tours are still the best way to see all the complex environment and wildlife of the islands.

There are only 116 visitor sites in the Galapagos: 54 land sites and 62 scuba-diving or snorkeling sites. Small groups are allowed to visit in 2–4 hour shifts only, to limit impact on the area. All groups are accompanied by licensed guides.

Galapagos Islands - galapagos-tortoise


Main islands
The 18 main islands (with a land area larger than 1 km2) of the archipelago (with their English names) shown alphabetically:

Baltra (South Seymour) Island – Also known as South Seymour, Baltra is a small flat island located near the centre of the Galápagos. It was created by geological uplift. The island is very arid, and vegetation consists of salt bushes, prickly pear cacti and palo santo trees.
Until 1986, Baltra (Seymour) Airport was the only airport serving the Galápagos. Now, there are two airports which receive flights from the continent; the other is located on San Cristóbal Island. Private planes flying to Galápagos must fly to Baltra, as it is the only airport with facilities for planes overnight. On arriving in Baltra, all visitors are immediately transported by bus to one of two docks. The first dock is located in a small bay, where the boats cruising Galápagos await passengers. The second is a ferry dock, which connects Baltra to the island of Santa Cruz.
During the 1940s, scientists decided to move 70 of Baltra's land iguanas to the neighboring North Seymour Island as part of an experiment. This move proved unexpectedly useful when the native iguanas became extinct on Baltra as a result of the island's military occupation in World War II. During the 1980s, iguanas from North Seymour were brought to the Charles Darwin Research Station as part of a breeding and repopulation project, and in the 1990s, land iguanas were reintroduced to Baltra. As of 1997, scientists counted 97 iguanas living on Baltra; 13 of which had hatched on the islands.

Bartolomé (Bartholomew) Island – Bartolomé Island is a volcanic islet just off the east coast of Santiago Island in the Galápagos Islands group. it is one of the "younger" islands in the Galápagos archipelago. This island, and neighbouring Sulivan Bay on Santiago (James) island, are named after lifelong friend of Charles Darwin, Sir Bartholomew James Sulivan, who was a lieutenant aboard HMS Beagle.[8] Today Sulivan Bay is often misspelled Sullivan Bay. This island is one of the few that are home to the Galapagos penguin which is the only wild penguin species to live on the equator. The green turtle is another animal that resides on the island.

Darwin (Culpepper) Island – This island is named after Charles Darwin. It has an area of 1.1 km2 (0.4 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 168 m (551 ft). Here fur seals, frigates, marine iguanas, swallow-tailed gulls, sea lions, whales, marine turtles, and red-footed and Nazca boobies can be seen.

Galapagos Islands - Iguanas

Española (Hood) Island – Its name was given in honor of Spain. It also is known as Hood, after Viscount Samuel Hood. It has an area of 60 km2 (23 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 206 m (676 ft).
Española is the oldest island at around 3.5 million years, and the southernmost in the group. Due to its remote location, Española has a large number of endemic species. It has its own species of lava lizard, mockingbird, and tortoise. Española's marine iguanas exhibit a distinctive red coloration change between the breeding season. Española is the only place where the waved albatross nests. Some of the birds have attempted to breed on Genovesa (Tower) Island, but unsuccessfully. Española's steep cliffs serve as the perfect runways for these birds, which take off for their ocean feeding grounds near the mainland of Ecuador and Peru.
Española has two visitor sites. Gardner Bay is a swimming and snorkelling site, and offers a great beach. Punta Suarez has migrant, resident, and endemic wildlife, including brightly colored marine iguanas, Española lava lizards, hood mockingbirds, swallow-tailed gulls, blue-footed boobies, Nazca boobies, red-billed tropicbirds, Galápagos hawks, three species of Darwin's finches, and the waved albatross.

Fernandina (Narborough) Island 
– The name was given in honor of King Ferdinand II of Aragon, who sponsored the voyage of Columbus. Fernandina has an area of 642 km2 (248 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 1,494 m (4,902 ft). This is the youngest and westernmost island. On 13 May 2005, a new, very eruptive process began on this island, when an ash and water vapor cloud rose to a height of 7 km (23,000 ft) and lava flows descended the slopes of the volcano on the way to the sea. Punta Espinosa is a narrow stretch of land where hundreds of marine iguanas gather, largely on black lava rocks. The famous flightless cormorants inhabit this island, as do Galápagos penguins, pelicans, Galápagos sea lions and Galápagos fur seals. Different types of lava flows can be compared, and the mangrove forests can be observed.

Galapagos islands - Focas

Floreana (Charles or Santa María) Island – It was named after Juan José Flores, the first President of Ecuador, during whose administration the government of Ecuador took possession of the archipelago. It is also called Santa Maria, after one of the caravels of Columbus. It has an area of 173 km2 (67 sq mi) and a maximum elevation of 640 m (2,100 ft). It is one of the islands with the most interesting human history, and one of the earliest to be inhabited. Flamingos and green sea turtles nest (December to May) on this island. The patapegada or Galápagos petrel, a sea bird which spends most of its life away from land, is found here. At Post Office Bay, since the 19th century whalers kept a wooden barrel that served as post office so that mail could be picked up and delivered to their destinations, mainly Europe and the United States, by ships on their way home. At the "Devil's Crown", an underwater volcanic cone and coral formations are found.

Genovesa (Tower) Island – The name is derived from Genoa, Italy. It has an area of 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 76 m (249 ft). This island is formed by the remaining edge of a large caldera that is submerged. Its nickname of "the bird island" is clearly justified. At Darwin Bay, frigatebirds and swallow-tailed gulls, the only nocturnal species of gull in the world, can be seen. Red-footed boobies, noddy terns, lava gulls, tropic birds, doves, storm petrels and Darwin finches are also in sight. Prince Philip's Steps is a bird-watching plateau with Nazca and red-footed boobies. There is a large Palo Santo forest.

Isabela (Albemarle) Island (Ecuador) – This island was named in honor of Queen Isabela. With an area of 4,640 km2 (1,792 sq mi), it is the largest island of the Galápagos. Its highest point is Volcán Wolf, with an altitude of 1,707 m (5,600 ft). The island's seahorse shape is the product of the merging of six large volcanoes into a single land mass. On this island, Galápagos penguins, flightless cormorants, marine iguanas, pelicans and Sally Lightfoot crabs abound. At the skirts and calderas of the volcanoes of Isabela, land iguanas and Galápagos tortoises can be observed, as well as Darwin finches, Galápagos hawks, Galápagos doves and very interesting lowland vegetation. The third-largest human settlement of the archipelago, Puerto Villamil, is located at the southeastern tip of the island. It is the only island to have the equator run across it. It is also the only place in the world where a penguin can be in its natural habitat in the Northern Hemisphere.

Marchena (Bindloe) Island: Named after Fray Antonio Marchena, it has an area of 130 km2 (50 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 343 m (1,125 ft). Galápagos hawks and sea lions inhabit this island, and it is home to the Marchena lava lizard, an endemic animal.

North Seymour Island – Its name was given after an English nobleman, Lord Hugh Seymour. It has an area of 1.9 km2 (0.7 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 28 m (92 ft). This island is home to a large population of blue-footed boobies and swallow-tailed gulls. It hosts one of the largest populations of frigate birds. It was formed from geological uplift.

Pinzón (Duncan) Island – Named after the Pinzón brothers, captains of the Pinta and Niña caravels, it has an area of 18 km2 (7 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 458 m (1,503 ft).

Pinta (Abingdon) Island – Named after the Pinta caravel, it has an area of 60 km2 (23 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 777 m (2,549 ft). Sea lions, Galápagos hawks, giant tortoises, marine iguanas, and dolphins can be seen here. Pinta Island was home to the last remaining Pinta tortoise, called Lonesome George. He was moved from Pinta Island to the Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island, where scientists were attempting to breed from him. However, Lonesome George died in June 2012 without producing any offspring.

Galapagos Islands - Galapagos Blue footed boobies

Rábida (Jervis) Island – It bears the name of the convent of Rábida, where Columbus left his son during his voyage to the Americas. It has an area of 4.9 km2 (1.9 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 367 m (1,204 ft). The high amount of iron contained in the lava at Rábida gives it a distinctive red colour. White-cheeked pintail ducks live in a saltwater lagoon close to the beach, where brown pelicans and boobies have built their nests. Until recently, flamingos were also found in the lagoon, but they have since moved on to other islands, likely due to a lack of food on Rábida. Nine species of finches have been reported in this island.

San Cristóbal (Chatham) Island – It bears the name of the patron saint of seafarers, "St. Christopher". Its English name was given after William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. It has an area of 558 km2 (215 sq mi) and its highest point rises to 730 m (2395 ft). This is the first island in the Galapagos Archipelago Charles Darwin visited during his voyage on the Beagle. This islands hosts frigate birds, sea lions, giant tortoises, blue- and red-footed boobies, tropicbirds, marine iguanas, dolphins and swallow-tailed gulls. Its vegetation includes Calandrinia galapagos, Lecocarpus darwinii, and trees such as Lignum vitae. The largest freshwater lake in the archipelago, Laguna El Junco, is located in the highlands of San Cristóbal. The capital of the province of Galápagos, Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, lies at the southern tip of the island.

Santa Cruz (Indefatigable) Island (Galápagos) – Given the name of the Holy Cross in Spanish, its English name derives from the British vessel HMS Indefatigable. It has an area of 986 km2 (381 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 864 m (2834 ft). Santa Cruz hosts the largest human population in the archipelago, the town of Puerto Ayora. The Charles Darwin Research Station and the headquarters of the Galápagos National Park Service are located here. The GNPS and CDRS operate a tortoise breeding centre here, where young tortoises are hatched, reared, and prepared to be reintroduced to their natural habitat. The Highlands of Santa Cruz offer exuberant flora, and are famous for the lava tunnels. Large tortoise populations are found here. Black Turtle Cove is a site surrounded by mangroves, which sea turtles, rays and small sharks sometimes use as a mating area. Cerro Dragón, known for its flamingo lagoon, is also located here, and along the trail one may see land iguanas foraging.

Santa Fe (Barrington) Island – Named after a city in Spain, it has an area of 24 km2 (9 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 259 m (850 ft). Santa Fe hosts a forest of Opuntia cactus, which are the largest of the archipelago, and Palo Santo. Weathered cliffs provide a haven for swallow-tailed gulls, red-billed tropic birds and shear-waters petrels. Santa Fe species of land iguanas are often seen, as well as lava lizards.

galapagos Islands map

Santiago (San Salvador, James) Island (Galápagos) – Its name is equivalent to Saint James in English; it is also known as San Salvador, after the first island discovered by Columbus in the Caribbean Sea. This island has an area of 585 km2 (226 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 907 m (2976 ft). Marine iguanas, sea lions, fur seals, land and sea turtles, flamingos, dolphins and sharks are found here. Pigs and goats, which were introduced by humans to the islands and have caused great harm to the endemic species, have been eradicated (pigs by 2002; goats by the end of 2006). Darwin finches and Galápagos hawks are usually seen, as well as a colony of fur seals. At Sulivan Bay, a recent (around 100 years ago) pahoehoe lava flow can be observed.

Wolf (Wenman) Island – This island was named after the German geologist Theodor Wolf. It has an area of 1.3 km2 (0.5 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 253 m (830 ft). Here, fur seals, frigatebirds, Nazca and red-footed boobies, marine iguanas, sharks, whales, dolphins and swallow-tailed gulls can be seen. The most famous resident is the vampire finch, which feeds partly on blood pecked from other birds, and is only found on this island.









Salt Flat Uyuni is the world's largest salt flat at 10,582 square kilometers (4,086 sq mi). It is located in the Potosí and Oruro departments in southwest Bolivia and is at an elevation of 3,656 masl (11,995 ft) 

The Salar was formed as a result of transformations between several prehistoric lakes. It is covered by a few meters of salt crust, which has an extraordinary flatness with the average altitude variations within one meter over the entire area of the Salar. The crust serves as a source of salt and covers a pool of brine, which is exceptionally rich in lithium. It contains 50 to 70% of the world's lithium reserves, which is in the process of being extracted. 


Salt Flat Uyuni, Bolivia


Salt Flat Uyuni is part of the Altiplano of Bolivia in South America. The Altiplano is a high plateau, which was formed during uplift of the Andes mountains. The plateau includes fresh and saltwater lakes as well as salt flats and is surrounded by mountains with no drainage outlets.

The geological history of the Salar is associated with a sequential transformation between several vast lakes. Some 30,000 to 42,000 years ago. 


Salt Flat Uyuni, Bolivia


The area has a relatively stable average temperature with a peak at 21 °C (70 °F) in November to January and a low of 13 °C (55 °F) in June. The nights are cold all through the year, with temperatures between −9 and 5 °C (16 and 41 °F). The relative humidity is rather low and constant throughout the year at 30 to 45%. The rainfall is also low at 1 to 3 millimeters (0.039 to 0.118 in) per month between April and November, but it may increase up to 70 millimeters (2.8 in) in January. However, except for January, even in the rainy season the number of rainy days is fewer than 5 per month.









Easter Island Information


Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle. Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui people. In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park.

Polynesian people settled on Easter Island in the first millennium CE, and created a thriving culture, as evidenced by the moai and other artifacts. However, human activity, the introduction of the Polynesian rat and overpopulation led to gradual deforestation and extinction of natural resources, which caused the demise of the Rapa Nui civilization. By the time of European arrival in 1722, the island's population had dropped to 2,000–3,000 from a high of approximately 15,000 just a century earlier. Diseases carried by European sailors and Peruvian slave raiding of the 1860s further reduced the Rapa Nui population, down to 111 in 1877.


Easter Island Information


Easter Island is one of the most remote inhabited islands in the world. The nearest inhabited land (around 50 residents) is Pitcairn Island 2,075 kilometres (1,289 mi) away, the nearest town with a population over 500 is Rikitea on island Mangareva 2,606 km (1,619 mi) away, and the nearest continental point lies in central Chile, 3,512 kilometres (2,182 mi) away.

Easter Island is a special territory of Chile that was annexed in 1888. Administratively, it belongs to the Valparaíso Region and more specifically, is the only commune of the Province Isla de Pascua. According to the 2012 census, it has about 5,800 residents, of which some 60% are descendants of the aboriginal Rapa Nui.

Easter Island is one of the world's most isolated inhabited islands. Its closest inhabited neighbor is Pitcairn Island, 2,075 km (1,289 mi) to the west, with fewer than 100 inhabitants. The nearest continental point lies in central Chile near Concepción, at 3,512 kilometres (2,182 mi).


Easter Island Information


The island is about 24.6 km (15.3 mi) long by 12.3 km (7.6 mi) at its widest point; its overall shape is triangular. It has an area of 163.6 square kilometres (63.2 sq mi), and a maximum altitude of 507 meters (1,663 ft). There are three Rano (freshwater crater lakes), at Rano Kau, Rano Raraku and Rano Aroi, near the summit of Terevaka, but no permanent streams or rivers.